Decades ago, a unique cell death pathway was reported, namely ‘Necroptosis’, that exhibits both the characteristics of apoptosis, the programmed cell death mechanism, as well as the unprogrammed necrotic cell death pathway. Various reports show that virus infection sometimes upregulates and sometimes inhibits the necroptotic cell death pathway in favor of its progeny dissemination. Interestingly, sometimes host cells also induce necroptosis for eradication of viral load. In viruses like Influenza and Zika, necroptosis is mediated by the host protein ZBP1. Hepatitis B and E viruses also mediate necroptosis for the occurrence of disease pathology. Furthermore, Rotaviruses, Reoviruses, Respiratory Syncytial Viruses (RSV), Rhinoviruses, Human Cytomegaloviruses, Herpes Simplex Viruses (HSV), and many more mediate necroptosis either in favor of viral progeny dissemination and disease pathology or for virus eradication. Moreover, Oncolytic Adenoviruses are reported to induce necroptosis, which can be a potential mechanism in favor of cancer treatment. HIV, on the other hand, destroys CD4+ T lymphocytes through activating necroptosis. Hence, there are reported widespread roles of necroptosis in several viral infection scenarios. However, the detailed mechanisms and roles in specific virus infections are not yet dissected. Investigations regarding the roles of necroptosis in these viral infection scenarios can also wind up a way regarding virus limitation in the host through potent necroptotic targeting.
To cite this article
Necroptosis in viral infections: a twilight among progeny dissemination and host defense
Infectious Diseases and Tropical Medicine 2023;
Submission date: 24 Nov 2022
Revised on: 29 Jan 2023
Accepted on: 23 Mar 2023
Published online: 08 Jun 2023
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