Our Journal makes a plagiarism check by a certificate program.
JOURNAL e-ISSN: 2379-4054
Infectious Diseases and Tropical Medicine (Infect Dis Trop Med) is an international open-access peer-reviewed medical journal that publishes solicited and unsolicited articles spanning from fundamental new discoveries in basic science to translational research (“bench-to-bedside”), methods and protocols, clinical trials, and identification of novel therapeutic targets. The scope of the Journal includes, but is not limited to basic research, prevention, translational research, public health, pharmacology and pharmacogenomics aspects, treatment, elderly patients, virus-related tumors, innovative aspects regarding diagnosis, pathology, and clinical-experimental diseases.
Articles are posted online as soon as they have completed the production process in a fully citable form associated with a universal digital object identifier (DOI). At this time, articles are free to view and download for all.
Infectious Diseases and Tropical Medicine does not accept the publication of articles referring to “data not shown” or “unpublished data”.
Abstracting and Indexing
Article Processing Charges (APCs)
Infectious Diseases and Tropical Medicine does not apply any fee for the publication of articles.
Manuscripts for Infect Dis Trop Med have to be submitted via Publishing Manager. The correspondence for each article must be carried on only by the corresponding author. He/She/Them must ensure that all eligible co-authors have been included in the author list – please read the full details under “Authorship and Copyright” and that they have all approved the submitted version of the manuscript. The corresponding author can see the manuscript details in the submission system, if He/She/Them register and log in using the e-mail address provided during the manuscript submission.
All information entered during the submission process related to the manuscript should be identical to the final submitted version of the manuscript – please read the full details under “Presentation of Manuscripts”. Papers are accepted on the understanding that they have not been, and will not be, published elsewhere.
Authors must submit manuscripts that are not published, in press, or submitted to other scientific journals, books or other venues that could be considered formal publication (including preprints).
The submission process requires a full declaration of personal interests and funding interests from all Authors; these details should also be included in the text of the manuscript (click here for detailed information).
A cover letter must also be included with each manuscript submission. It should mention the following information, as stated by the ICMJE guidelines:
– A full statement about all submissions and previous reports that might be similar or might be considered redundant publications by underlining the originality and innovation of the submitted research.
– A statement of financial or other relationships that might lead to a conflict of interest. This information should also be included in the manuscript itself.
Authorship and Copyright
Authors must fulfill the following criteria:
- He/She/Them must have made a substantial contribution to research design, or to the acquisition, analysis or interpretation of data;
- He/She/Them must have drafted the paper or revised it critically;
- He/She/Them must have given approval of the submitted and final versions.
Infect Dis Trop Med Authors will be required to sign a Copyright Transfer Agreement (click to download PDF) for all papers accepted for publication. The signature of the CTA is a condition of publication. After submission, Authors cannot submit their manuscripts to other journals. After acceptance, the Publisher owns the rights of the manuscripts. To assist the Authors, an appropriate CTA form will be supplied by the editorial office. The original completed Copyright Transfer Agreement must be signed by the Corresponding Author and sent by e-mail to Infectious Diseases and Tropical Medicine. The Editors retain the usual right to modify the style and length of a contribution (major changes being agreed with the Corresponding Author) and to decide the time of publication.
Authors who wish to use or reproduce any third-party material, such as figures or tables, must obtain permission from the copyright holder (usually the original publisher). Once obtained, documents certifying the permission to use third-party content should be sent to email@example.com for archiving purposes.
A statement indicating that permission has been obtained must be included in the relevant legend/footnote.
Please note that Infectious Diseases and Tropical Medicine does not accept submissions of manuscripts that have previously been made available online as a preprint on a preprint server or on the Authors’ own website.
Presentation of Manuscripts
The following parts should appear in all manuscript types and are mandatory for publication:
- TITLE PAGE: the title page must contain the Authors’ names, appointments and affiliations, along with the full contact details of the Corresponding Authors, including their current e-mail addresses. A full and a short-running title should be given, plus a small number of keywords (5-10) for indexing purposes. We recommend that the keywords are specific to the article.
- COVER LETTER: the cover letter briefly outlines the article’s relevance to the journal’s audience and how the article advances understanding of the field. It must include contact information [affiliation, postal address, e-mail address, telephone number] for all Authors. Authors should also indicate a Corresponding Author to whom correspondence will be sent if the manuscript is accepted for publication. In the Letter, the Authors must confirm that the manuscript has been submitted solely to this journal and is not published, in press, or submitted elsewhere (including preprint servers). They have to confirm that all the research meets the ethical guidelines, including adherence to the legal requirements of the study country. The cover letter must be signed by the Corresponding Author on behalf of all the other Authors.
- LIST OF ABBREVIATIONS: Abbreviations should be defined the first time they appear in the abstract, the main text and the first figure or table. Then, the abbreviation can be added in parentheses after the written-out form.
- ABSTRACT: The Abstract should count a total of about 300 words maximum. It should be organized into sections using the following headings: INTRODUCTION or BACKGROUND or OBJECTIVE; PATIENTS AND METHODS or MATERIALS AND METHODS or SUBJECTS AND METHODS or CASE REPORT/PRESENTATION; RESULTS; CONCLUSIONS.
The paper should then proceed conventionally: Introduction, Patients and Methods or Materials and Methods or Subjects and Methods or Case Report/Presentation, Results, Discussion, Conclusions, and References. Pages should be numbered consecutively in Arabic numerals, including tables, figure legends (with magnifications if needed), and declarations.
- REFERENCES: References should be numbered in the order in which they are first mentioned in the text and should be located in superscript and not in parenthesis.
References have to follow a numerical order and should be identified in the text, tables, and legends through Arabic numbers in superscript. References must be verified by the Authors against the original documents.
Authors should observe the following guidelines.
- Do not attempt to make your output approximate or match the typeset page.
- Be consistent in style (i.e., units, abbreviations).
- End paragraphs in a uniform manner, and in a different manner from line endings within paragraphs. A frequently used paragraph ending is simply two carriage returns.
- Use double spacing in your document. Do not add extra line spacing (except as a normal paragraph ending indication) above or below titles, subheads, or between paragraphs.
- Avoid using multiple spaces (horizontal) in your electronic manuscript. End sentences with only one space. Never use multiple spaces for the horizontal positioning of text.
- Table and figure captions should be prepared in separate files. The Authors have to indicate this material within the text.
- Additional tables or figures and/or extra methodological detail can be included in a separate Supplementary Appendix.
All manuscripts must contain the following required sections at the end of the paper (click here for detailed information).
Original Articles should present novel work that makes a significant impact within the aims and scope of the journal, and which provides an important advancement in the reader’s knowledge or understanding. Supporting data or additional experimental details can be submitted as Supplementary Appendix.
- Word limit: 3500 words (excluding the abstract and references)
- References: unlimited
- Abstract: 300 words or less and it should be structured (BACKGROUND or OBJECTIVE; PATIENTS AND METHODS or MATERIALS AND METHODS or SUBJECTS AND METHODS; RESULTS; CONCLUSIONS).
- Tables/Figures: Do not repeat the data extensively in tables or figures.
Brief Commentaries are short manuscripts that have important and generally preliminary data on a specific issue.
- Word limit: 1700 words (excluding the abstract and references)
- References: 10-20
- Abstract: up to 75 words, unstructured
- Tables/Figures: a maximum of 1 figure or table
Infectious Diseases and Tropical Medicine publishes narrative reviews on current topics and recent advances in the scientific literature.
Reviews highlight recent advances in research, current challenges and unmet needs. Authors are also encouraged to provide their perspectives on current progress and future directions.
- Word limit: 4000 words (excluding the abstract and references)
- References: unlimited
- Abstract: 300 words or less, unstructured
- Tables/Figures: minimum 2 and no more than 8 figures or tables
SYSTEMATIC REVIEWS AND META-ANALYSES
- Word limit: 4000 words (excluding the abstract and references)
- References: unlimited
- Abstract: 300 words or less and it should be structured (OBJECTIVE; MATERIALS AND METHODS; RESULTS; CONCLUSIONS)
- Tables/Figures: minimum 2 and no more than 8 figures or tables
Please, note that a systematic review analyzes a defined research question by collecting and summarizing all empirical evidence that fits pre-specified eligibility criteria. On the other hand, a meta-analysis reports the use of statistical methods to summarize the results of these studies.
According to the International Committee of Medical Journal Editors (ICMJE), to conduct a systematic review or meta-analysis, the Authors have to follow the guidelines of the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic reviews and Meta-Analyses (PRISMA).
To perform a high-quality analysis, the Authors are requested to follow some specific guidelines:
- Authors have to clearly state objectives and pre-defined eligibility criteria for studies (e.g., inclusion and exclusion criteria, etc.);
- Authors have to clearly describe the methods used for locating, selecting, extracting, and synthesizing data;
- the methodology should be accurate and reproducible;
- Authors have to conduct a systematic search that aims at identifying all relevant studies on the topic analyzed;
- Authors have to assess the validity of the findings of the included studies (e.g., risk of bias);
- Authors have to present a systematic analysis with detailed characteristics and findings of the included studies.
CASE REPORTS (WITH OR WITHOUT ACCOMPANYING LITERATURE REVIEW)
Case Reports present a notable medical case or series of related cases of particular interest to the field of infectious diseases and tropical medicine. Case Reports can be accompanied by a Review of the literature on the specific topic covered in the manuscript.
- Word limit: 1500 words (excluding the abstract and references)
- Reference limit: 20
- Abstract limit: 200 words and it should be structured (BACKGROUND or INTRODUCTION or OBJECTIVE; CASE REPORT or CASE PRESENTATION; CONCLUSIONS)
- Tables/Figures limit: 4
Case Reports have to include a final section for the informed consent. Permission or written consent should be obtained to draft the manuscript. The consent can be obtained by the patient of parents in case the patient is a minor.
Editorials are short articles that provide an insight into issues of topical importance to the journal’s target audience or researchers. The articles should provide an expert perspective on a topic of recent interest. This contribution is usually solicited by the Editors. If unsolicited, the Authors are advised to contact our Editorial Team (firstname.lastname@example.org) with an outline of the proposed review and CV of the Authors.
- Word limit: 1400 words
- References: 15 or less
- Tables/Figures: A maximum of 1 figure or table
LETTERS TO THE EDITOR
Letters to the Editor consist of comments on an article published in Infectious Diseases and Tropical Medicine. The inclusion of Letters to the Editor in the journal is at the discretion of the Editor-in-Chief, and they may undergo external peer review. All Letters to the Editor will be subsequently sent to the author of the original article, who will have 60 days to provide a Reply to be published alongside the Letter.
Letters are restricted to the discussion of papers already published in the journal, with a maximum of 1,000 words, one table or figure and up to 20 references.
Case/Photo Quiz are based on a question-and-answer format.
It usually illustrates an unusual disease or an atypical presentation of an infectious disease, to challenge the reader on its differential diagnosis.
The history of the case needs to be reported in the question portion of the article, but it should not disclose the diagnosis.
- Question should be written in a single paragraph
- Figures: 3 or less
- Answer should give the diagnosis and outline or include the key teaching points
All clinical trials submitted to Infectious Diseases and Tropical Medicine must be registered to the WHO International Clinical Trials Registry Platform (ICTRP) or ClinicalTrials.gov. The International Committee of Medical Journal Editors (ICMJE) defines a clinical trial as “any research project that prospectively assigns human subjects to intervention or comparison groups to study the cause-and-effect relationship between a medical intervention and a health outcome. Studies designed for other purposes, such as to study pharmacokinetics or major toxicity (e.g., phase 1 trials), are exempt.”
For definitions and further information, please check ICMJE Recommendations (“The Uniform Requirements”)found in ICMJE’s Uniform Requirements for Manuscripts Submitted to Biomedical Journals. Please note, however, that, unlike ICMJE, Infectious Diseases and Tropical Medicine does not require trials to be registered before enrollment begins, although our journal does strongly encourage this practice. When submitting your manuscript, please include the unique trial number and the name of the registry (e.g., ClinicalTrials.gov or ISRCTN) at the end of the abstract and in your cover letter.
Other guidelines have been developed and should be followed for different study designs:
- CONSORT for randomized trials;
- STROBE for observational studies;
- STARD for studies of diagnostic accuracy.
In particular, good sources for reporting guidelines are the EQUATOR Network and the NLM’s Research Reporting Guidelines and Initiatives.
Preparing References, Tables and Figures
When reporting the reference numbers in the text, you have to follow these rules: “1-2” must be written as “1,2” and so on. You have to put “-“ just in case you have many consecutive numbers. For example: “1,2,3,4,5,6” must be written as “1-6”;
References numbers must follow a chronological order within the text and must be inserted before the punctuation. (YES 12. NO.12)
Complete all the references in accordance with the Instructions for the Authors: you must list all the Authors (NOT et al), year without month of publication, and name of the journal. You have to write the international acronyms without any punctuation; you must put a space after semicolon and colon (NOT 2014;2014:907915, YES 2014; 2014: 907915); moreover, initial and final pages must be entirely reported (NOT 135-46; YES 135-146).
In the references, you must substitute “and” with “,” (comma) before the last author’s name;
NOT: Garcia-Contreras M, Brooks RW, Boccuzzi L, Robbins PD, and Ricordi C. Exosomes as biomarkers and therapeutic tools for type 1 diabetes mellitus. EurRevMedPharmacolSci 2017;21:2940-2956.
YES: Garcia-Contreras M, Brooks RW, Boccuzzi L, Robbins PD, Ricordi C. Exosomes as biomarkers and therapeutic tools for type 1 diabetes mellitus. Eur Rev Med Pharmacol Sci 2017; 21: 2940-2956.
ILLUSTRATIONS AND TABLES
Figure legends should be included in the main text of the manuscript and not form part of the figures. The Authors are encouraged to send the highest-quality figures possible. For the accepted file format, see below:
ACCEPTED FILE FORMATS
|Document Files||Graphic Files||Graphic Files|
• TIF (or TIFF)
• JPG (or JPEG)
The figure resolution/specification for various types of original figures, at their final size, should be as follows: Line art – Minimum 600 dpi, measuring preferably 13 by 18 cm and no more than 20 by 25 cm in size. Halftone (i.e., both B/W and Color photographs) – Minimum 300 dpi, measuring preferably 13 by 18 cm and no more than 20 by 25 cm in size. Line and tone (line art and halftone combined) – Minimum 600 dpi, measuring preferably 13 by 18 cm and no more than 20 by 25 cm in size.
For line figures, the lines should be solid, the text in a standard font and not blurred, and the overall image should be sharp and clear. Avoid using tints if possible; if they are essential to the understanding of the figure, try to make them coarse. As a guide, if the electronic files are viewed at 400% on the computer screen and they look blurred or pixelated in any way then they will NOT be of sufficient quality for printing.
Tables should be self-contained and complete; they must not duplicate the information already contained in the text. They should be supplied as editable files (word files), not pasted as images. All abbreviations must be defined in footnotes. Footnote symbols: †, ‡, §, ¶, should be used (in that order) and *, **, *** should be reserved for p-values. Statistical measures such as SD or SEM should be identified in the headings.
Figure and table legends must be able to stand alone in the text and thus full descriptive legends for all figures and tables should be supplied.
UNITS AND ABBREVIATIONS
All measurements should be in SI units with the exception of hemoglobin (g/dL) and blood pressure (mmHg). Original observations recorded in other units should be stated, together with the appropriate conversion factors. Standard abbreviations without punctuation are used. Units, Symbols, and Abbreviations (1988) published by the Royal Society of Medicine, and SI: The International System of Units (1982) from HMSO both provide useful guides. Abbreviations, used sparingly, should follow the first full spelling, in parentheses.
Sequence variants should be described in the text and tables using both DNA and protein designations whenever appropriate. Sequence variant nomenclature must follow the current HGVS guidelines, where examples of acceptable nomenclature are provided.
Generic names should, in general, be used. If an Author desires, brand names may be inserted in parentheses. Drug names are spelled out according to the European Pharmacopoeia, but the American spelling should be used after the first use of a drug name.
Methods should be referenced. Two-tailed significance tests should be used unless explicitly stated. Controls should be described as completely as experimental subjects. Measures of location should be accompanied by measures of variability (e.g., mean and confidence intervals) as well as conventional probability values. Clinical trial reports should include the power of the study design.
Research and Publication Ethics
Infect Dis Trop Med follows the guidelines on Good Publication Practice: COPE and ICMJE. These guidelines aim to ensure that articles are published in a responsible and ethical manner, trying to add high-quality scientific works to the field of scholarly publication.
Moreover, as Infect Dis Trop Med follows the ICMJE’s Recommendations for the Conduct, Reporting, Editing and Publication of Scholarly Work in Medical Journals, we expect that Authors, reviewers and editors follow the best-practice guidelines on ethical behavior.
Authors, the journal and reviewers must abide to the following:
- Authors and the Journal have to follow the Good Publication Practice: COPE and ICMJE guidelines during submission. Please, also check the Scientific Misconduct, Expressions of Concern, and Retraction guidelines from ICMJE.
- Infect Dis Trop Med, Authors and reviewers have to guarantee confidentiality and do not have to share information about manuscripts, including peer-review, their content or status in the review process, concerns raised by reviewers, and the final decision about rejection or acceptance, to anyone other than the Authors and reviewers.
- Infect Dis Trop Med and reviewers have to ensure the processing of manuscripts timely. On the other hand, Authors have to ensure timely communication and availability to reply to concerns during the review and publication process.
- The peer-review is the most critical assessment of the scientific process and should be followed in a rigorous matter. Specific information about our peer-review process is available here.
- Integrity should be the standpoint for both Authors and the journal. The Editorial decisions about the acceptance or rejection of a manuscript should be based on the research’s originality, contribution to the scientific society, relevance to the topic of the journal and quality standards. Those decisions should not be jeopardized by commercial interests or personal relations.
- The spread of academic culture and scientific knowledge should also support diversity and inclusion for Authors as well as reviewers, editorial board members and editorial staff.
ETHICS, INSTITUTIONAL REVIEW BOARDS AND INFORMED CONSENT
Clinical studies must include a reference to the appropriate Ethics Committee/Institutional Review Board (IRB) and have an appropriate Consent Form approved by the Ethics Committee/IRB before enrollment of the research subjects in the study. Appropriate review process and approval should also be documented for all pre-clinical experimental studies submitted. When reporting experiments on human subjects, Authors should indicate whether the procedures followed were in accordance with the Ethical Standards of the Responsible Committee on Human Experimentation (institutional and national) and with the Helsinki Declaration of 1975, as revised in 2000. If doubt exists whether the research was conducted in accordance with the Helsinki Declaration, the Authors must explain the rationale for their approach and demonstrate that the institutional review body explicitly approved the doubtful aspects of the study. Should any questionable approval process emerge, the Editors reserve the right to reject any submitted paper.
When reporting experiments on animals, Authors should indicate whether institutional and national standards for the care and use of laboratory animals were followed. Should any questionable approval process emerge, the Editors reserve the right to reject any submitted paper.
Appropriate consents, permissions and releases must be obtained in case Authors wish to include case details or other personal information or images of patients in their publication. This is to comply with all applicable laws and regulations concerning the privacy and/or security of personal information, including, but not limited to the General Data Protection Regulation (GDPR) (EU) 2016/679.
Patients have the right to privacy that should not be violated without informed consent. Identifying information, including names, initials, or hospital numbers, should not be published in written descriptions, photographs, or pedigrees unless the information is essential for scientific purposes and the patient (or parent or guardian) gives written informed consent for publication. Informed consent for this purpose requires that an identifiable patient be shown the manuscript to be published. Authors should disclose to these patients whether any potentially identifiable material might be available via the Internet as well as in print after publication.
- Images of patients or research subjects should not be used unless the information is essential for scientific purposes and explicit permission has been given as part of the consent.
- If identifying characteristics are altered to protect anonymity, Authors should provide assurances that such alterations do not distort scientific meaning.
- Formal consents are not required for the use of entirely anonymized images from which the individual cannot be identified – for example, x-rays, ultrasound images, laparoscopic images etc.
- If consent has not been obtained, it is generally not sufficient to anonymize a photograph simply by using eye bars or blurring the face of the individual concerned.
Corrections, Erratum and Retractions
After acceptance, Authors cannot apply major corrections to the manuscript, Figures, Tables, or authorship. Before publication, we send galley proofs twice to the corresponding author. The Authors are asked to carefully check them (especially for what concerns name of Authors, affiliations and corresponding Authors) and send their approval for publication. After publication, no further corrections can be applied. We publish corrections only when necessary, and, to ensure that corrections are handled consistently, one editor deals with them all. Generally, we evaluate corrections case by case.
In case Authors discover a mistake between online and galley proof we will normally correct it by making the article correct in the online version.
We publish errata when a significant error has been detected in a published article and some changes are required. Significant mistakes involve tables, incorrect information, and spelling errors in case they modify the meaning of the article. Corresponding Authors should send an email stating the type of error and the requested corrections. All Authors have to agree with an erratum. To ensure that corrections are handled consistently, one editor deals with them all.
To issue errata, we follow the Council of Science Editors guidelines.
An erratum notice linked to the article to be corrected will be published in the first available issue;
The erratum notice will clearly state the title and Authors, the issue of publication, the DOI, and the PMID in the erratum heading;
Corrections will be clearly stated in the erratum notice from the original version and the date(s) on which the changes were made.;
The erratum notice will be freely available to all readers online.
We will post a new article version with details of the changes.
Retractions will be considered by Infectious Diseases and Tropical Medicine in case of evidence of unreliable data, plagiarism, unethical research, and misconduct. We consider an expression of concern notice if an article is under investigation.
All requests of withdrawal must be sent by the corresponding author, who should provide detailed reasons for retraction. Authors should also provide a signed document stating that all Authors agree with retraction and related reasons.
In case a third party informs us about a mistake, problem, or manipulation related to data or research itself, our Editor in Chief can decide to conduct an independent peer-review to establish whether our published data are reliable or accurate. The Editor in Chief can decide to withdraw an article without the consent of the Authors in case of malpractice or evident mistakes.
A retraction notice linked to the retracted article will be published in the first available issue;
The retraction notice will clearly state the title and Authors, the issue of publication, the DOI, and the PMID in the retraction heading;
The retraction notice will be freely available to all readers and will state who is retracting the article and the detailed reason(s) for retraction.
PLAGIARISM OR OTHER TYPES OF UNETHICAL PUBLICATION PRACTICE
Authors who want to publish in our Journal must follow the guidelines on Good Publication Practice as reported in COPE and Council of Science Editors. These guidelines aim to ensure that articles are published in a responsible and ethical manner.
On a practical level, the first step is an early investigation using our anti‐plagiarism software. Our Journal makes a plagiarism checker by a certificate program on all the articles. Also, articles that are related to the suspected case of plagiarism or other unethical practice are checked accurately by either the reviewer’s feedback and observations or the Editors’ own observations. Our anti‐plagiarism software, however, will not identify “salami slicing”. So, it is imperative that each case is looked at individually and therefore, we do not advocate the use of one statement of actions to penalize the offender. Each case is considered separately and, as editors, we will need to decide if it is a deliberate action on the part of the author or if it is due to a lack of understanding of the requirements of ethical writing. This can happen for new Authors or some Authors where translation to English is often difficult. An example of this is where there are no words/phrases in that language that translate into English, and a developing practice that we noted is the ‘borrowing’ of words, phrases or often sentences that are considered appropriate for what Authors mean to say.
Infectious Diseases and Tropical Medicine disapproves any kind of malpractice and unethical practice.
Infectious Diseases and Tropical Medicine applies the Creative Commons Attribution (CC BY-NC-SA 4.0) license to articles. If you submit your paper for publication in our journal, you agree to have the CC BY-NC-SA 4.0 license applied to your work as follows:
- BY) Attribution — You must give appropriate credit, provide a link to the license, and indicate if changes were made. You may do so in any reasonable manner, but not in any way that suggests the licensor endorses you or your use.
- NC) NonCommercial — You may not use the material for commercial purposes.
- SA) ShareAlike — If you remix, transform, or build upon the material, you must distribute your contributions under the same license as the original.
No additional restrictions: You may not apply legal terms or technological measures that legally restrict others from doing anything the license permits.
Notices: You do not have to comply with the license for elements of the material in the public domain or where your use is permitted by an applicable exception or limitation.
No warranties are given. The license may not give you all the permissions necessary for your intended use. For example, other rights such as advertising, privacy, or moral rights may limit how you use the material.
Paper reprints shall be charged. Electronic offprints are sent to the first Author at his/her first email address on the title page of the paper, on request. For this reason, please ensure that the name, address, and email address of the Corresponding Author are clearly indicated on the manuscript title page if He/She/Them are not the first authors of the paper.
You can contact our Editorial Team at email@example.com. We will provide you with quotations for supplements.
Preservation and Archiving
Our Journal is committed to the permanent availability and preservation of scholarly research and to ensuring accessibility by upgrading digital file formats to comply with new technology standards.
All our files are archived and preserved in CLOCKSS.